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Interior painting essentials: prep, prime and paint


Author: NJR Steel
Article Views:3376
Categories: Construction, Renovation, Paint, DIY

A successful painting project is a 3-step process: prepping, priming and painting. All of these steps are equally important to ensure great results. This article provides exacting detail for every possible interior painting surface in every possible condition.

Plaster

For previously painted plaster, complete the following steps.

Surface preparation
  1. Very carefully scrape off any loose or peeling paint. Take care not to dig into or gouge the surface under the paint.
  2. Feather sand edges of remaining paint using fine grit (#220) garnet paper.
  3. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  4. Remove all dirt, hand prints, airborne cooking oil, etc. by scrubbing with detergent and warm water. Rinse thoroughly.

Note: If you suspect the old paint to contain lead, do not attempt to remove the paint by scraping, sanding, power washing or any other method, as the poisonous lead particles will be released. Rather hire a qualified contractor to do the job safely.

Priming
  1. Priming is not essential if the surface is clean, sound, and any old glossy paint has been dulled. However, any exposed plaster should be primed.
  2. Priming the entire surface will provide the best adhesion, uniformity of finish coat.
  3. Use a high adhesion stain blocking primer if the surface is not very adhesive or if there is surface staining. Otherwise, use a PVA latex wall primer.
Staining or clear coating
  1. For best dirt resistance, durability and cleanability, use a top-of-the-line interior latex wall paint in flat, eggshell or satin finish depending on desired appearance.
  2. A satin finish will provide the best dirt and stain resistance.
  3. A medium range dead flat latex wall paint will do well for hiding irregularities in the surface, and will also touch up less noticeably than a paint with more sheen.

For unpainted plaster, complete the following steps.

Surface Preparation
  1. The plaster should be thoroughly dried out before painting. This can take up to one month following installation, depending on thickness, temperature and relative humidity.
  2. Glossy, sealed areas should be dulled by sanding. Wear eye protection and a dust mask.
  3. Remove all dust and dirt with a damp cloth.
Priming
  1. Priming is necessary for maximum adhesion of the finish coat, as well as sheen uniformity and protection from alkalinity.
Staining or clear coating
  1. For best dirt resistance, durability and cleanability, use a top-of-the-line interior latex wall paint in flat, eggshell or satin finish, depending on the desired appearance.
  2. A satin finish will provide the best dirt and stain resistance.
  3. A medium range dead flat latex wall paint will do well for hiding irregularities in the surface, and will touch up less noticeably than a paint with more sheen.

Drywall

For a previously painted ceiling, complete the following steps.

Surface Preparation
  1. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  2. Repair scratches and gouges with drywall compound or spackle, and sand flush once dry. For maximum durability, use plaster of Paris or patching plaster, and sand flush.
  3. Fill gaps with quality acrylic or siliconised acrylic caulk and immediately smooth it flush. Allow to dry overnight and make a second application if needed. Do not sand caulk.
  4. Dull any glossy areas by sanding with fine grit (#220) garnet paper. Wear eye protection and dust mask.
  5. Remove all dirt by scrubbing with detergent and warm water. Rinse thoroughly, and pay special attention to kitchen areas (accumulated airborne cooking oils) and around switches and door knobs (hand prints and oils).

Note: If you suspect the old paint to contain lead, do not attempt to remove the paint by scraping, sanding, power washing or any other method, as the poisonous lead particles will be released. Rather hire a qualified contractor to do the job safely.

Priming
  1. If the existing paint is in excellent condition, priming is helpful but not necessary unless specified by paint the manufacturer.
  2. You will need to prime all repaired areas.
  3. Prime the entire surface for maximum adhesion, stain blocking and sheen uniformity.
  4. Use stain blocking primer if there is staining; otherwise use a PVA latex wall primer.
  5. Do not leave a primer unpainted.
Painting
  1. A quality latex ceiling paint will be spatter-resistant and will provide a flat finish with uniform sheen and optimum light diffusion.
  2. A flat wall paint can be used in order to match wall colour.
  3. A latex satin or semi-gloss paint is suitable for kitchens and bathrooms.

For previously unpainted ceilings, complete the following steps.

Surface Preparation
  1. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  2. Repair scratches and gouges with drywall compound or spackle, and sand flush once dry. For maximum durability, use plaster of Paris or patching plaster, and sand flush.
  3. Fill gaps with quality acrylic or siliconised acrylic caulk and immediately smooth it flush. Allow to dry overnight and make a second application if needed. Do not sand caulk.
  4. Dull any glossy areas by sanding with fine grit (#220) garnet paper. Wear eye protection and dust mask.
  5. Remove dust using rags or a vacuum cleaner, then clean off any dirt. with a detergent and water mixture. Rinse thoroughly.
Priming
  1. Priming is required in order to achieve adequate uniformity of sheen and hiding irregularities.
  2. For most work, a PVA latex wall primer works well, otherwise a quality latex stain-blocking primer recommended for interior use will provide maximum adhesion and stain blocking.
  3. Do not leave a primer unpainted.
Painting
  1. A quality latex ceiling paint will be spatter-resistant and will provide a flat finish with uniform sheen and optimum light diffusion.
  2. A flat wall paint can be used in order to match wall colour.
  3. A latex satin or semi-gloss paint is suitable for kitchens and bathrooms.

For previously painted walls, complete the following steps.

Surface Preparation
  1. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  2. Repair scratches and gouges with drywall compound or spackle, and sand flush once dry. For maximum durability, use plaster of Paris or patching plaster, and sand flush.
  3. Fill gaps with quality acrylic or siliconised acrylic caulk and immediately smooth it flush. Allow to dry overnight and make a second application if needed. Do not sand caulk.
  4. Dull any glossy areas by sanding with fine grit (#220) garnet paper. Wear eye protection and dust mask.

Note: If you suspect the old paint to contain lead, do not attempt to remove the paint by scraping, sanding, power washing or any other method, as the poisonous lead particles will be released. Rather hire a qualified contractor to do the job safely.

Priming
  1. If the existing paint is in excellent condition, priming is helpful but not necessary unless specified by the paint manufacturer. You will need to prime all repaired areas.
  2. Prime the entire surface for maximum adhesion, stain blocking and sheen uniformity.
  3. Use stain blocking primer if there is staining; otherwise use a PVA latex wall primer.
Painting
  1. For best dirt resistance, durability and cleanability, use a top-of-the-line interior latex wall paint in flat or eggshell finish depending on the desired appearance.
  2. A satin finish will provide better dirt and stain resistance.
  3. A flat latex wall paint will hide irregularities in the surface, but will not resist stains and burnishing as well as a quality eggshell or satin finish.

For unpainted walls, complete the following steps.

Surface preparation
  1. Repair scratches and gouges with drywall compound or spackle, and sand flush once dry. For maximum durability, use plaster of Paris or patching plaster, and sand flush.
  2. Fill gaps with quality acrylic or siliconised acrylic caulk and immediately smooth it flush. Allow to dry overnight and make a second application if needed. Do not sand caulk.
  3. Remove dust using rags or a vacuum cleaner, then clean off any dirt. with a detergent and water mixture. Rinse thoroughly.
Priming
  1. Priming is required in order to achieve adequate uniformity of sheen and hiding irregularities.
  2. For most work, a PVA latex wall primer works well.
  3. For maximum adhesion and stain blocking, use a quality latex stain-blocking primer that is recommended for interior use.
  4. Do not leave a primer unpainted.
Painting
  1. For best dirt resistance, durability and cleanability, use a top-of-the-line interior latex wall paint in flat or eggshell finish, depending on desired appearance.
  2. A satin finish will provide better dirt and stain resistance.
  3. A flat latex wall paint will hide irregularities in the surface, but will not resist stains and burnishing as well as a quality eggshell or satin finish.

Wood

For bare wood such as doors and trim, complete the following steps.

Surface Preparation
  1. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  2. Dull any glossy areas of wood (“mill glaze”) by sanding with medium grit (#120) garnet paper. Wear eye protection and dust mask.
  3. Repair scratches and gouges with drywall compound or spackle, and sand flush once dry. For maximum durability, use plaster of Paris or patching plaster, and sand flush.
  4. Fill gaps with quality acrylic or siliconised acrylic caulk and immediately smooth it flush. Allow to dry overnight and make a second application if needed. Do not sand caulk.
  5. Remove any dirt by scrubbing with detergent and warm water. Rinse thoroughly, and let it dry completely.
  6. Lightly sand the entire area to be painted with fine (#220) grit garnet paper, then dust off with clean rags.
Priming
  1. Priming is necessary to ensure adhesion, stain blocking and sheen or gloss uniformity.
  2. Do not leave primer unpainted.
  3. To prime all surfaces, use one of the following stain blocking primers recommended for interior use:
  • Latex stain blocking primer – excellent for general use, good adhesion, blocks most stains, superior long term adhesion and flexibility, easiest to use and lowest odour.
  • Alcohol-based (shellac based) stain blocking primer – maximum adhesion and stain blocking, moderate odour upon application, requires alcohol clean-up, quick drying. Use with ample ventilation.
  • Oil-based (alkyd) primer – superior adhesion and stain blocking, high odour upon application. Use with ample ventilation. Use if oil-based paint is to be applied.
  • Do not use PVA latex wall primer for this.
Painting
  1. Use top-of-the-line interior latex or oil-based paint in flat, satin, semi-gloss or gloss finish, depending on the desired appearance.
  2. Oil-based will provide greater hardness, but may yellow, and will be prone to crack over time.
  3. Satin, semi-gloss and gloss paints will resist dirt and handprints better than a flat finish.

For previously painted wood such as trim and doors, complete the following steps.

Surface Preparation
  1. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  2. Dull any glossy areas of wood (“mill glaze”) by sanding with fine grit (#220) garnet paper. Wear eye protection and dust mask.
  3. Remove any dirt by scrubbing with detergent and warm water. Pay special attention to kitchen areas and around switches and door handles. Rinse thoroughly, and let it dry completely.
  4. Carefully scrape off cracking, loose or poorly adhering paint. Wear eye protection, cloth work gloves, and a dust mask.
  5. Feather sand any edges of remaining paint by sanding with fine grit (#220) garnet paper; wear eye protection and dust mask.
  6. Clean off all remaining dust.

Note: If you suspect the old paint to contain lead, do not attempt to remove the paint by scraping, sanding, power washing or any other method, as the poisonous lead particles will be released. Rather hire a qualified contractor to do the job safely.

Priming
  1. Apply latex or oil-based wood stain-blocking primer to any areas where bare wood has been exposed.
  2. For maximum adhesion, stain blocking and uniformity of sheen, prime the entire area to be painted.
Painting
  1. Use top-of-the-line interior latex or oil-based paint in flat, satin, semi-gloss or gloss finish, depending on the desired appearance.
  2. Oil-based paint will provide greater hardness, but may yellow, and will be prone to crack over time.
  3. Satin, semi-gloss and gloss paints will resist dirt and handprints better than a flat finish.

For previously stained or clear-coated wood such as trim or doors, complete the following steps.

Surface preparation
  1. Treat any mildew with a solution of three parts water to one part household beach, leaving it on for 20 minutes and adding more as it dries. Rinse thoroughly. Wear eye and skin protection throughout.
  2. Carefully scrape off any cracking, loose, or poorly adhering coating. Wear eye protection, cloth work gloves, and a dust mask throughout.
  3. Feather sand any edges of remaining paint by sanding with fine grit (#220) garnet paper; wear eye protection and dust mask.
  4. Remove any dirt by scrubbing with detergent and warm water. Pay special attention to kitchen areas and around switches and door knobs. Rinse thoroughly, and let it dry completely.
Priming
  1. Priming is necessary to ensure adhesion, stain blocking and sheen or gloss uniformity.
  2. Do not leave primer unpainted.
  3. To prime all surfaces, use one of the following stain blocking primers recommended for interior use:
  • Latex stain blocking primer – excellent for general use, good adhesion, blocks most stains, superior long term adhesion and flexibility, easiest to use and lowest odour.
  • Alcohol-based (shellac based) stain blocking primer – maximum adhesion and stain blocking, moderate odour upon application, requires alcohol clean-up, quick drying. Use with ample ventilation.
  • Oil-based (alkyd) primer – superior adhesion and stain blocking, high odour upon application. Use with ample ventilation. Use if oil-based paint is to be applied.
  • Do not use PVA latex wall primer for this.
Painting
  1. Use a top-of-the-line interior latex or oil-based paint in flat, satin, semi-gloss or gloss finish, depending on the desired appearance.
  2. Oil-based paint will provide greater hardness, but may yellow, and will be prone to crack over time.
  3. Satin, semi-gloss and gloss paints will resist dirt and handprints better than a flat finish.

Source: Quality Paint Institute


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